Where is the European Union Heading?


Where is the European Union Heading?

 Prof. Alfred Tovias


Course description

The purpose of this seminar is to introduce its members to the regional integration schemes established in Europe after WWII. The focus is by-and-large on the EU but special attention will be devoted to the OECD, as well as its predecessor, the OEEC. Other secondary organizations, such as EFTA and the EBRD will also be reviewed. The following topics will be treated:  The European Union and its predecessor , the European Community: an historical overview (1950-2015). Special attention will be devoted to the Marshall Plan, the Schuman Plan, the Rome Treaty, the Maastricht Treaty, “1992”, the creation of the Euro and the Lisbon Treaty. Detailed focus will be placed on the process of decision-making and institutional developments. The successive Enlargements of the EU will deserve separate treatment, with a particular attention to the accession of different Central and Eastern European countries into the EU. Relations with Israel will be subsumed as a topic in the context of the EU’s system of external relations and foreign policies. Finally, strong emphasis will be laid on the recent so-called “crisis of the Euro” and the latter’s long-run sustainability. 


Content of the seminar sessions :


1. Introduction to the seminar

Program. Credit for the course. Readings and bibliography. Quantitative and qualitative resources. Importance of the EU for Israel.


2. Several methodological issues

Concepts and definitions. Different forms of economic integration. Positive and negative integration. Interdependence and integration. International economic organizations. Functionalism and neo-functionalism. Functional classification of international and European economic organizations

Nelsen, B. and A. Stubb (eds.), The European Union, Readings on the Theory and Practice of European Integration, 3rd edition, Boulder: L. Rienner, 2003. Chapters 19,22 and 24. 


3.  The OEEC and the OECD

History and developments. Institutions, The Development Assistance Committee(DAC). The International Energy Agency (IEA)

Woodward, R.,  The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development(OECD), London, Routledge , 2009, Chapters 2,3 and 5.

OECD - http://www.oecd.org/


4. The Theory of  Customs Unions

Trade creation. Trade diversion. Trade deflection. Terms of Trade effects. The Likelihood of gain from a Union. The Free Trade area case. Dynamic and other non-static effects.

Tovias, A., “A Survey of the Theory of Economic Integration,” Journal of European Integration, 15/1, 1991, pp. 5-23.


5. Historical perspective on post-war Europe

Origins and establishment of the European Community. From the Marshall Plan to the Rome Treaty (1947-1957). The ECSC. The EEC and Euratom.

Nelsen, B. and A. Stubb (eds.), op.cit, Chapters 2,3 and 5

Stirk, P, A History of European Integration since 1914, London, Pimter,1996, Chapters 4 and 5;. 


6. Consolidation of the European project

From the EC to the EU. Constitutional Change until the Lisbon Treaty. No to a EU constitution.

Laursen, F. “The EU’s Treaty of Lisbon: Origin, Institutional Choice and Significance” in Roy, J and R.Dominguez (eds), Lisbon Fado: The European Union under Reform,Miami, Miami-Florida European Union Center/Jean Monnet Chair, 2009, pp.49-66.


7. The EU’s current Institutions and decision-making procedures.

Egenhofer , C. et al., The Ever-Changing Union, Brussels, CEPS, 2011, pp.20-59


8. Core EU Policies

Common Trade policy.  Common Agricultural Policy. Common competition policy. The Budget: Revenues and Expenditures. The Completion of the Single Market ("1992") and the issue of labour movements.

George, S. “The European Union, 1992 and the Fear of fortress Europe” in Gamble, A and A.Payne(eds.), Regionalism and World Order, New York, St.Martin’s Press,1996,  pp.21-54.

Hagemejer, J. and Michalek, J.,”The Standardization Policy of the EU”, European Journal of Law Reform, 9/3, 2007: pp413-30.

Holmes, P. and Dumont, B., “EU Competition Policy from an Economic Perspective: Shaping Policy or Shaped by Policy?” in  Verdun A. and A.Tovias (eds.), Mapping European Economic Integration,   Houndmills, Palgrave, 2013, pp.57-78

Holmes. P. and Tovias, A., “Trade Policy” in Verdun A.  and A.Tovias (eds.), op.cit,   Houndmills, Palgrave, Palgrave Studies in European Union Politics, 2013,op.cit.,   pp.38-56

Josling, T. and A. Swimbank, “EU Agricultural Policies and European Integration: a Thematic Review of the Literature” in Verdun A. and A. Tovias(eds.), op.cit.,   pp.18-37.


9. Internal and External Security: The Shengen Treaty. Frontex.Towards a common migration policy?

Boswell, C. and Geddes A., Migration and Mobility in the European Union, Houndmills, Palgrave, 2011, pp.51-75.


10. The EU’s System of External Relations and elements of a Foreign policy.

The Middle East as a case study. Relations with Mediterranean countries with a focus on bilateral EU-Israel relations.  Transatlantic Trade Relations: The TTIP

Laursen F., “The EU’s Transatlantic Trade Policy. Why the Move towards FTAs?. The Track Record So Far” in Roy, J and R.Dominguez (eds), The TTIP: The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership between the European Union and the United States, Miami, Miami-Florida European Union Center/Jean Monnet Chair, 2014, pp.135-50.

Musu, C.European Union Policy Towards the Arab-Israeli Peace Process, Houndmills, Palgrave, 2010, chapters 4, 5 and 6.

Pardo, S. and Peters, J., Uneasy Neighbors, Israel and the European Union, Langham, Lexington, pp.47-68.

Tovias, A. “Spontaneous vs. Legal Approximation: The Europeanization of Israel”, European Journal of Law Reform, 9/3, 2007, pp.485-501.

Tovias, A. , "The EU and the Mediterranean Nonmember States", in F.Bindi and I. Angelescu (eds.), The Foreign Policy of  the European Union,Assessing Europe’s Role in the World, 2nd edition, Washington, Brookings Institution Press, 2012, pp.186-202.

Verola, N., ‘The New EU Foreign Policy under the Treaty of Lisbon” in F.Bindi and I. Angelescu (eds.), op.cit., pp.40-50.


11. Economic and Monetary Union(I).

The EMS (European Monetary System). The EMU (Economic and Monetary Union). The Euro. Maastricht criteria and the SGP.

Mundell, R. “Keynote Address” in European Commission, European economic governance in an international context, Directorate General for Education and Culture, 2013, pp.22-38.

Sadeh, T. and Verdun, A., “Explaining Europe’s Monetary Union: A Survey of the Literature, International Studies Review, 11. 2009, pp.277-301

Sanchis I Marco, M., The Economics of the Monetary Union and the Eurozone Crisis, Berlin, Springer, 2014 , pp.1-12

Thygesen, N., “Governance in the Euro Area: Approaching an Optimum Currency Area?” in Verdun A.  and A.Tovias (eds.), op.cit,   pp.125-45.


12. Economic and Monetary Union (II).

The Eurozone crisis. Current problems of the Monetary Union. New roles assigned to the ECB. Is the Eurozone sustainable in the long run?

Grauwe, P., “The Political Economy of the Euro”  in Annual Review of Political Science 2013, http://polisci.annualreviews.org

Hughes, K., European Politics and the Euro Crisis: Ten Failures, Friends of Europe, olicy Paper, November 2011.

Napoli, C. , The Eurozone (not a) Debt Crisis, Working prepared, unpublished , prepared for the 2013 ISA Annual Conference

Tovias, A., “All for One , One for All” in Roy, J.,The State of the Union(s): The Eurozone Crisis, Comparative Regional Integration and the EU Model,  Miami, Miami-Florida European Union Center/Jean Monnet Chair, 2012,  pp.45-56.


13. The European Free Trade Association (EFTA)

History and developments. From the failure of the negotiations in the context of the OEEC to the Treaty of Stockholm. Industrial free trade. The future of EFTA after the different EU Enlargements since 1995. 

Curzon, V., The Essentials of Economic Integration, London, Macmillan, 1974. Chapters 2, 3.


14. The Enlargements of the European Union: First, Second, Third and Fourth EU       Enlargements. The EEA

Brennan, E., The Eastern Enlargement of the European Union, Abindon, 2006, chapter 2, 3, 8. 9 and 10.

Curzon V., op. cit., 1974. Chapter 9.

Nugent, N.,“The EU and the 10 + 2 Enlargement Round: Opportunities and Challenges” in Nugent, N.(ed.), European Union Enlargement, Houndmills, Palgrave, 2004, pp.1-21.

Nugent, N , “ Previous Enlargements Rounds” in Nugent, N.(ed.), op.cit, pp.22-33 .

Occhipinti, J., “Justice and Home Affairs” in Nugent, N.(ed.), op.cit, pp.199-212.

Von Stiphout, T., “Homogeneity Vs. Decision-Making Autonomy in the EEA Agreement, European Journal of Law Reform, 9/3, 2007,  pp 431-48.




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